Theories of history

Historian Xiang Yannan (向燕南) on the transformation of the relationship between the Classics and History during the Song and Ming period

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从“荣经陋史”到“六经皆史”

——宋明经史关系说的演化及意义之探讨

向燕南

来源:经学文献微信公众号2015-12-23
For the original website please see here.
摘要

经史关系的问题,是中国古代学术史的重要论题之一。但是宋以前并未见“荣经陋史”的观点。宋代以后,理学形成并发展,其中,以二程和朱熹等为代表的理学家,吸收佛教华严宗尤其是华严禅的理事说的理论,逐渐系统了其以抽象超验之“理”为本体的二元世界观的理学体系,并以“理一分殊”的观点来解释外在之普遍天理与具体之芸芸事物的关系,从而形成其“荣经陋史”、“经精史粗”的经史关系观。入元,在和会朱陆、调和心理之学术倾向的影响下,对经史关系的看法中,开始出现一些抬高史学的言论。明代中叶是经史关系观转捩的重要时期。王阳明以心说理,将普遍之理与个体意识统一于具有道德渊薮和本体意义的“心”中,提出“事即道,道即事”,特殊体现普遍,普遍内在于特殊的观点,并在此思路的基础上,明确提出“五经亦史”、“六经吾心之记籍也”的经史关系思想,对后来“六经皆史”说的普及,产生深远影响。具体表现:一、促进了史学的自主意识;二、促进了对经学的史学研究。

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Just published: Transforming Consciousness: Yogācāra Thought in Modern China

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Just published including several articles on the influence of Yogācāra Buddhism on some key thinkers such as Zhang Taiyan, Tan Sitong and Liang Shuming, who all had a considerable impact on the modern Chinese understanding of history and time.

Transforming Consciousness: Yogācāra Thought in Modern China (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), edited by John Makeham, xiii+436 pages

Abstract: The Western roots of many aspects of modern Chinese thought have been well documented. Far less well understood, and still largely overlooked, is the influence and significance of the main exemplar of Indian thought in modern China: Yogācāra Buddhist philosophy. This situation is all the more anomalous given that the revival of Yogācāra thought amongst leading Chinese intellectuals in the first three decades of the twentieth century played a decisive role in shaping how they engaged with major currents in modern Chinese thought: empirical science; “mind science” or psychology; evolutionary theory; Hegelian and Kantian philosophy; logic; and the place of Confucian thought in a modernizing China.

The influence and legacy of Indian thought have been ignored in conventional accounts of China’s modern intellectual
history. This volume sets out to achieve three goals. The first is to explain why this Indian philosophical system proved to be so attractive to influential Chinese intellectuals at the very moment in Chinese history when traditional knowledge systems and schemes of knowledge compartmentalization were being confronted by radically new knowledge systems introduced from the West. The next goal is to demonstrate how the revival of Yogācāra thought informed Chinese
responses to the challenges of modernity, in particular modern science and logic. The third goal is to highlight how Yogācāra thought shaped a major current in modern Chinese philosophy: New Confucianism.

Transforming Consciousness forces us to rethink the entire project in modern China of the “translation of the West.” Taken together, the chapters develop a wide-ranging and deeply sourced argument that Yogācāra Buddhism played a much more important role in the development of modern Chinese thought (including philosophy, religion, scientific
thinking, social, thought, and more) than has previously been recognized. They show that Yogācāra Buddhism enabled key intellectuals of the late Qing and early Republic to understand, accept, modify, and critique central elements of Western social, political, and scientific thought.

The chapters cover the entire period of Yogācāra’s distinct shaping of modern Chinese intellectual movements, from its roots in Meiji Japan through its impact on New Confucianism. If non-Buddhists found Yogācāra useful as an indigenous form of logic and scientific thinking, Buddhists found it useful in thinking through the fundamental principles of the Mahāyāna school, textual criticism, and reforming the canon. This is a crucial intervention into contemporary
scholarly understandings of China’s twentieth century, and it comes at a moment in which increasing attention is being paid to modern Chinese thought, both in Western scholarship and within China.

TOC

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