Religion

Article on modernity, society and religion in China incl. the term “transcending/overcoming” (超越)

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中国“宗教-社会现代性”的梳理、反思、批判与超越

李翼

 

来源:中国民族报,中道网2015年4月28日

For the original website see here.

摘要:古代中国旧有的传统与理想,从政治、经济、军事,到文化与宗教,都不得不面临现代化的挑战而被重新考量。在这“三千年未有之变局”到来之关键时刻,传统中国文化生活的重要部分——宗教,也不得不被挟裹进现代性的狂潮而接受时代命运的考验。

过去百余年,滥觞于17-18世纪启蒙运动时代西欧的现代性潮流席卷中国。古代中国旧有的传统与理想,从政治、经济、军事,到文化与宗教,都不得不面临现代化的挑战而被重新考量。在这“三千年未有之变局”到来之关键时刻,传统中国文化生活的重要部分——宗教,也不得不被挟裹进现代性的狂潮而接受时代命运的考验。中国宗教多样而古老的传统,或湮灭,或被遗忘,但也有复苏,乃至新生。魏德东博士的新书《宗教的文化自觉·魏德东的宗教评论3》,就是对中国“宗教与社会现代性”这一重要文化问题的梳理、反思、批判以及展望与超越。

 

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Long and interesting discussion between Gan Yang (甘阳), Gan Chunsong (干春松), Liu Xiaofeng (刘小枫) etc. on Kang Youwei (康有为) and the institutionalized Confucianism incl. issues pertaining to modern Chinese views of evolutionary history

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康有为与制度化儒学

甘阳 唐文明 张翔 白彤东 姚中秋 姚育松 陈明 曾亦 干春松 陈壁生 陈少明 刘小枫

来源:开放时代,中道网2014-10-09

For the original website see here. 

摘要:儒学行内圣外王之道。然而,在过去相当长一段历史时期,儒学主要表现为内圣之学。固守心性一隅而无视世运民生之儒学绝非真儒学,所谓“制度化儒学”乃致力于彰显儒学应有的“外王”面向。康有为其时之所思所行,于当下仍具借鉴意义。

编 者 按

甲午之战以来,两甲子间,国祚屡迁。加之西潮涌入,传统式微,时至今日,中国已非百余年前之中国。然中国何以为中国,这一问题却历久弥新。康有为生于晚清内外交困之际,面对从传统老大帝国到现代民族国家转化这一不可遏阻的洪流,面对西方文明这一强有力的“他者”,而致思于儒学(教)制度化建设,冀望于传统内部开出新的文明形式。

儒学行内圣外王之道。然而,在过去相当长一段历史时期,儒学主要表现为内圣之学。固守心性一隅而无视世运民生之儒学绝非真儒学,所谓“制度化儒学”乃致力于彰显儒学应有的“外王”面向。康有为其时之所思所行,于当下仍具借鉴意义。

本专题内容节选自中山大学哲学系与中山大学岭南文化研究院于2014年6月26日~27日在康有为家乡广东南海联合举办的首届康园论坛“康有为与制度化儒学”研讨会的部分现场发言,录音整理后的文字已经发言人审阅。部分小标题为编者另拟。

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Older, yet still interesting text by historian Wang Jian (王健) on research on popular religions in China from a social history perspective

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近年来民间信仰问题研究的回顾与思考:社会史角度的考察

王健

 

稿源︰ 《史學月刊》2005年第3期

For the original website see here.

 

[內容提要] 民間信仰問題是當前社會史研究中的一個重要領域,其研究取得一定的成績,使得民間信仰成為了深入理解中國傳統社會的一個很好的突破口。當然,研究中也存在諸多不足,最主要的問題是概念運用的隨意性太大。在研究方法上,一方面受到了包括社會人類學、社會學、民俗學等諸多學科的影響,另一方面傳統的史學研究方法也應得到重視。

關鍵詞: 民間信仰研究;社會史;社會文化

 

Retrospect on the Study of Folk Religion: A Survey from the Perspective of Social History
WANG Jian

(Institute of History Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Shanghai 200235, China)

Key Words: study of folk religion; social history; retrospect

Abstract: Folk religion is an important area in the study of social history and some achievements have been made, which provide a good breach to have a better understanding of Chinese traditional society. But there also exist some limitations, in which the most serious problem is the random application of concepts. As for the research method ,on the one hand, it is influenced by some social sciences such as anthropology, sociology, folklore, and so on; on the other hand, the traditional methods of historiographical studies should be valued.

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Paul R. Katz (康豹): “Superstition” and its Discontents – On the Impact of Temple Destruction Campaigns in China, 1898-1948

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‘Superstition’ and its Discontents – On the Impact of Temple Destruction Campaigns in China, 1898-1948

 

來源:《第四屆國際漢學會議論文集-信仰、實踐與文化調適》,台北:中央研究院、聯經出版公司,2013

For the original website and full article see here.

1. Introductory Remarks
Based on the growing awareness that important processes of change shaped the fate of Chinese religion during the last decade of the Qing and the entire Republican period, this paper proposes to examine temple destruction campaigns in China from 1898 to 1948, including the tearing down of temple buildings or appropriating their property to be used as schools or other non-religious edifices,as well as outlawing their ritual activities and the specialists who participated in them. We know that during this period China’s central, regional, and local governments frequently labeled temples and their rituals (especially festivals) as forms of “superstition” (mixin 迷) and launched a series of campaigns to both seize their property and to assert the state’s authority over communal society. Some of these temple cults have reemerged since the 1980s, but what happened in between is, in the current state of scholarship, anybody’s guess. Yet, the extent to which these facets of communal religion were destroyed during the 50 years covered by this paper makes a vital difference in explaining their revival or lack thereof.
These issues are explored as part of an Academia Sinica Thematic Research Project entitled “1898-1948: Fifty Years that Changed Chinese Religions” (「1898-1948:改變了中國宗教的50年」; 100年度中央研究院主題研究計), currently being undertaken with Vincent Goossaert (高萬桑). This project endeavors to place religion at the core of understanding modern Chinese history by assessing three forms of change: 1) Mutations of the communal structures of religion; 2) New types of elite religiosity; and 3) Innovative productions of religious knowledge. This paper belongs to the project’s first theme.
The paper is divided into three sections. The first provides a critical overview of the different campaigns that targeted temples and their rituals (not to mention other forms of traditional religious life), including “build schools with temple property” (miaochan xingxue 廟產興學), “eradicating superstitions” (pochu mixi破除迷信), and “rectifying customs” (fengsu gailiang 風俗改良), as well as related undertakings like the New Culture Movement (Xin wenhua yundong 文化運動) and the New Life Movement (Xin shenghuo yundong 新生活運動).
The second part of the paper considers the roles played by different actors who supported or opposed these campaigns, as well as the outbreaks of resistance their efforts could provoke. The third assesses the impact of these campaigns through case studies of those areas covered by the “Fifty Years” project, namely Shanghai 上海 and Zhejiang 浙江 urban centers such as Hangzhou 杭州,  Ningbo 寧波, Huzhou 湖州, and Wenzhou 溫州. This study draws on a widerange of sources (local gazetteers, archives, newspaper accounts, etc.) in order to trace for the first time and in detail how the famed temples and extravagant festival cultures in the above-mentioned cities were nearly reduced to ruin. Evenmore importantly, examining the specifics of these processes allows us to more carefully consider the following questions: What changed in temples and their ritual functions? What was lost and what was preserved, and why? Who were the key actors in these processes of historical transformation?

Historian Max. K. W. Huang (黃克武)on “Superstition“ in Modern Chinese Thought

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《中國近代思想中的「迷信」》

 

來源:鈴木貞美、劉建輝編,《東アジアにおける知的交流》,頁 185-200,京都:國際日本文化研究センタ– ,2013年11月。

For the original website and full article see here.

Historian Chen Fangzhong (陳方中) on the dialogue between historical narration and Christian faith

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歷史敘述與基督信仰的對話

天主教學術研究中心 主任/陳方中

 

For the original website see here.

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Zhang Zhigang (张志刚): A review of the argument that “There is no Religon in China”

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   “中国无宗教论”反思

张志刚

 

[原文出处]《北京大学学报:哲学社会科学版》(京)2013年3期

[作者简介] 张志刚,北京大学哲学系、宗教学系教授,北京,100871

For the original website see here.

Information provided by Peng Qinqin.

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